Unit 4 revision

Unit 4 revision – work your way through these tasks

Ecologism  - Common ideas
a.         What is a political definition of ecology? Add definitions for Green politics, Pastoralism, Environmentalism, Humanism, Homeostasis, Anthropocentrism, Ecocentrism, Shallow & Deep ecology.
b.         Why has environmental concern become more acute?
c.          Define & explain the significance of TRANSNATIONALISM. What were the significant reports & agreements connected to this?
d.         How does it ‘stand apart’? & what mistake do the others make? How is it a new style of politics?
1.       Ecology
a.    What is the connection to biology? How is this linked to homeostasis 7 why is this important?
b.    What is the global ecosystem & why is this of political significance?
c.     How does ecology conflict with traditional notions of mankind? What does humanity face/why has this come about?
d.    Contrast the shallow & deep approaches
2.       Holism
a.    Explain how this concept works? Why is holistic medicine a good example?
b.    What is scientism & the Cartesian-Newtonian paradigm? How does ‘new physics’ provide an alternative ecologists can support?
c.     What religious ideas do some ecologists turn to instead? Explain the relevance of the Gaia hypothesis.
3.       Sustainability
a.         Who are the grey parties? Explain ‘spaceship earth’ & Keith Boulding’s argument
b.        What is the significance of the energy crisis? What was argued in Small is beautiful?
c.         Identify Hardin’s model. How does this parable shed light on the behaviour of individuals?
d.        How can the process of entropy be stopped or slowed down? Define SUSTAINABILITY. Give an example of sustainability policy.
e.        What did Schumacher mean by ‘Buddhist economics’?
f.          Contrast the modernists/light greens/realists with ‘darker’ greens or fundamentalists.
4.       Environmental ethics
a.         How & why is moral thinking extended in novel directions?
b.        What ethical issues do they have to grapple with? How can you justify this ‘futurity’?
c.         Explain Singer’s alternative approach with a definition of SPECIESISM.
d.        How does the moral stance of deep ecology go further? Nevertheless how does this fail to satisfy some?
5.       From having to being/self actualisation
a.         How do they seek to reshape happiness? Define POST MATERIALISM. How is ‘having’ deficient?
b.        How is human development unbalanced? What did Schumacher warn?
c.         Why might shallow or light greens have misgivings? How might dark or deeper greens want a paradigm shift? How have some ecologist swapped ‘having’ for ‘being’? What did Fox mean?
6.       Right wing ecology
a.         How did fascist ecology emerge, who was Walter Darre and what were their key ideas?
b.        Do Darre’s ideas in common with the modern Green movement? What does organic farming reflect?
7.       Modernist ecology (shallow/light/environmentalism)
a.       How & why is it reformist? What is a key feature? What is a watchword for this form of ecology?
b.      What are the 2 main ideological influences? Explain liberalism & conservatism’s significance – examples of how they do & don’t contribute to this form of ecology.
8.       Social ecology – ecosocialism/ecoanarchism/ecofeminism
a.       Explain its connection to pastoral socialism & Marxism. How is capitalism the problem? How is socialism naturally ecological? However, how can socialism be criticised?
b.      How do anarchist ideas against authority & natural harmony coincide with ecology? Explain their ideas of decentralised communities. Why might some greens worry about the absence of the state?
c.       How is ecological destruction linked to patriarchy? What did Daly argue? Explain the significance of the Gaia hypothesis. What do feminists argue about nature & traditional feminist values? If women are creatures of nature, what are men and how is this reflected?
9.       Deep ecology
a.       What did Naess suggest deep ecology was? What implications does their rejection of anthropocentrism have? What is meant by bio-centric equality? Why is this approach new & profound?
b.      Why & how is this approach distinctive? Why is the problem at a cultural level? Why is this dominant paradigm ‘dualistic’? What ideas have they looked at to bring about a change in paradigm?
c.       What wider goals & concerns do they have?
d.      How do modernist ecologists criticise deep ecologists? How do social ecologists criticise deep ecologists?
Ecology 15 mark questions
1.       Distinguish between anthropocentrism and ecocentrism. 
2.       Have ecologists revised conventional notions of morality?
3.       How have ecologist revised conventional ethical thought?
4.       Explain the ideas of eco-socialism.
5.       Explain the link between anarchism & ecologism
6.       Explain the  link between ecologism & feminism
7.       Explain the link between right wing/conservative ideas & ecologism
8.       Why have ecologists been ambivalent about science?
9.       What are the features of a sustainable economy?
45 marks questions
1.       To what extent is ecologism a single doctrine?
2.       ‘Ecology implies a radically different relationship between humankind and the natural world.’ Discuss. (45)
3.       ‘The goals of ecologism can only be achieved through radical social change.’ Discuss.
4.       What political ideologies are compatible with ecologism, and why?
5.       To what extent is shallow ecology a contradiction in terms?
6.       To what extent have ecologists rethought the nature of human fulfilment?
7.       To what extent can ecological politics be electorally & politically viable?

Feminism - Common ideas
a.    What 2 basic beliefs that feminism is defined by? Identify the diverse nature of feminism
b.    How did the women’s movement develop in the 19th century? What was is known as? How was it characterised?
c.     What was the 2nd wave? Note significant texts. What did feminism succeed in achieving? What has happened to feminism in more recent years?
2.       Is the personal political?
a.    Explain the traditional public private divide? How do modern feminists counter this?
b.    How does this help explain how sexual inequality has been preserved?
c.     How have feminists challenged this? How do the different feminist traditions approach this?
3.       Patriarchy
a.    What does this literally mean & how do feminists use it? How do some feminists use it limited sense? What terms might they prefer instead?
b.    How do feminists see the role of the family in relation to patriarchy? How did Millett describe ‘patriarchal government’? What do you think she meant?
c.     Explain how the 3 main wings of feminism analyse patriarchy
4.       Sex & gender
a.    How do feminists make a distinction between sex & gender?
b.    What impact does this have on how we understand differences between men & women?
c.     Which feminists reject the distinction?
5.       Equality & difference
a.    Contrast the 3 main feminist approaches to equality. Why could these be called ‘egalitarian’?
c.     How do difference feminists see equality? What do they want? Why do they think this?
d.    What is their problem with ‘personhood’ & what should they do instead?
e.    What are examples of reactionary feminism? How can this be argued as a type of feminism? Why is it a contradiction in terms?
6.       Liberal feminism
a.       Why do you think the 1st wave was influenced by liberalism? What did Wollstonecraft/JS Mill argue?
b.        What did the ‘feminine mystique’ argue? Why is this liberal feminism?
c.         What is the philosophical basis of liberal feminism? How is this reflected in their demands? It what sense is it reformist? What reforms has it achieved?
d.         What is their view of the roles in the family? How & why was this criticised?
e.        What kinds of women were attracted to liberal feminism? What does this end up ignoring?
7.       Socialist feminism
a.    How do SF differ from LF? How do SF see patriarchy? What did Engels have to say about this?
b.    What is the bourgeois family & how does it work? What is meant by the ‘cult of femininity’?
c.     What is the role of the ‘reserve army of labour’ & how is this in the interest of capitalism?
d.    Over what is there a division amongst socialists? What did Juliet Mitchell argue? What is the consequence for SF of this argument?
8.       Radical feminism
a.    What was distinctive about 2nd wave feminism? What did the feminist movement attempt in the 60’s & 70’s
b.    Why was Figes’s patriarchal attitude important? What did Greer say in the female eunuch? What does say Millett in sexual politics? What is the origin of the different roles of men & women? What did Millet propose?
c.     What is the central feature of RF? Why have they insisted society be understood as patriarchal? How/why is it a system of politico-cultural oppression?
d.    Explain the ‘pro-woman’ position. How does this differ? What do cultural feminists stand for?
e.    What are the implications of their position that sex difference are natural? What did Brownmiller argue in against our will? Do this group of feminists believe sexual equality is possible? Why do they think this?
f.     What did Ti-Grace Atkinson argue?  Do these separatist views reflect most radical feminists?

Feminism 15 mark questions
1.       Why have radical feminists proclaimed that the ‘personal is political’?
2.       Why have feminists stressed the distinction between sex & gender?
3.       Outline differences between liberal feminism & radical feminists.
4.       Why have some feminists rejected the idea of gender equality?
5.       What is patriarchy, and why is it important in feminist analysis?
6.       Explain the key features of liberal feminism.
7.       Explain the key features of socialist feminism?
8.       Explain the difference between androgyny and essentialism within feminism.
9.       In what sense have radical feminists sought to redefine the nature of politics?
10.   Why & how have feminists challenged conventional notions of politics

45 marks questions
1.        ‘Feminism is characterised more by disagreement than agreement.’ Discuss.
2.       Why have radical feminists criticised liberal feminists?
3.       Analyse similarities between liberal feminism & radical feminism.
4.       Feminism is compatible with many political doctrines, but not with conservatism.’ Discuss.
5.       To what extent is feminism compatible with other political ideologies?
6.       Are the differences within feminism greater than the similarities?
7.       To what extent is feminism a single doctrine?
8.       ‘Feminism is defined by the belief that “the personal is the political”.’ Discuss.
9.       In what sense is feminism revolutionary?
10.   Have the core ideas within feminism been exhausted?

Multiculturalism - Common ideas
a.       Define & explain ETHNO-CULTURAL NATIONALISM with examples.
  1. With examples explain the trend towards ethnic assertiveness.What else has Multi cultural trends been strengthened by? Make detailed reference to migration trends.Explain the reasons for a ‘hyper mobile planet.’
  2. Make note of Samuel Huntingdon’s contribution to the debate. Define ‘Consociationalism’
1.       Politics of recognition
a.       Explain the republicanism & the politics of rights.
b.      Why is (a) not enough? Explain the politics of redistribution.
c.       Why are (a) & (b) insufficient? Explain the politics of recognition.
2.       Culture & identity
a.       What does Identity politics seek to do? What does it link & how is it COMMUNITARIAN relevant? What is the significance of CULTURE? Is it divisive? What does a weak sense of culture leave?
b.      What do they mean by ‘a shift away from universalism to particularism’?
c.       What is ethnicity and why is it complex? Contrast the role of religion & Language.
3.       Minority rights
    1. Sometimes called? Explain 3 kinds of rights.
    2. How have they been justified? Explain at least 4.
c.       Why has this been controversial? Find at least 4.
4.       Diversity
    1. What does MC share with nationalism What assumption is MC based on?
    2. Find an example of multiple identity & a conservative argument against such a practice.
    3. What does the denial of cultural recognition result in? Explain why MC believes that diversity is more than just possible. Explain the link between diversity & systemic health. What is diversity an antidote to? Identify the tensions within MC.
  1. Liberal Multiculturalism
a.       What is the cornerstone of LM & why? What are its limits? How & why does it draw a distinction between public & private matters? What does it imply it’s compatible with?
b.      Use the points relating to France & the US to show the problems or limits that LM’s might have with MC. What kind on democracy would LM support & what would they oppose?
6.       Pluralist
a.       Why is it post liberal? Include a definition of Value pluralism and Berlin’s contribution.
b.      What John Gray argue? Evaluate Bhikhu Parekh view of cultural diversity.
c.       Explain a ‘particularist’ multiculturalism. Contrast the view that it is, on the one hand, political resistance, while on the other a problem for civic cohesion
7.       Cosmopolitan
    1. Define cosmopolitan. How can it be seen as entirely different from MC?
    2. Jeremy Waldron argued the opposite was true. What did he argue?
    3. From this position culture can be said to be fluid, how is this so? What is the difference between a ‘melting pot’ & a ‘cultural mosaic’? (mention HYBRIDITY) What is this positions benefit? How could it be criticised?
8.       Critiques
    1. List the parties that could be considered oppositional to MC? Also, identify political retreats.
    2. What is the key theme of liberal criticism & why is it a problem for individual rights?
    3. What did Amartya Sen attack? What is meant by Huntington’s ‘Clash of civilisations’? What did Sen mean by ‘solitaristic’ thinking.
    4. How do liberals view ‘militant Islam’? Where does most anti immigrant attacks come from? What do Con’s favour and what is the basis of this argument? Thus how is multiculturalism flawed?
    5. What is the usual response to the perceived threat and in which kind of countries does this occur? Define ASSIMILATION.
    6. From a conservative perspective, what implications does multiculturalism have for the host community? Think of examples for the UK.
    7. Why might feminism oppose the impact of multi culturalism? Find examples from contemporary examples?

15 mark questions
1.       On what grounds have multiculturalists defended the idea of minority rights?
  1. How and why have multiculturalists supported minority rights?
  2. On what grounds do multiculturalists defend diversity?
  3. Why have some multiculturalists criticised liberalism?
  4. Why have conservatives had reservations about multiculturalism?
  5. Why is multiculturalism often viewed as a form of identity politics?
  6. In what sense is multiculturalism a form of Communitarianism?
  7. To what extent is liberalism incompatible with multiculturalism?

45 mark questions
  1. To what extent is there tension between multiculturalism and liberalism?
  2. ‘Multiculturalism breeds tension and social conflict.’ Discuss.
  3. To what extent can multiculturalism be reconciled with national unity and cohesion?
  4. To what extent do multiculturalists support diversity and the politics of difference?
  5. To what extent is Multi culturalism hostile to conservatism?
  6. To what extent is multiculturalism a single doctrine?

  7.   To what extent is multiculturalism compatible with other political ideologies?

Nationalism - Common ideas
a.    Where & when did it originate? What part did the French revolution & Rousseau play?
b.    When did nationalism truly become a popular ideology & what reflected this?
c.     Define Chauvinism – where does the word originate?
d.    What was the impact of the Paris peace conference & Woodrow Wilson? What happened to nationalism in the 20th century? Give example. In what ways has Nationalism had its day?
2.       For the love of country & The Nation
a.    Is nationalism even an ideology at all? Is it essentially a psychological phenomenon? Why is it ‘schizophrenic’? Define Political, Cultural & Ethnic nationalism
3.       Organic community
a.    In what ways are they organic? What is the ‘pri-mordalist’ approach? What did Smith argue? What did Tonnies argue? How does Anderson see nations How does Hobsbawm summarise the relationship between nationalism & the nation?
4.       Self determination
a.    What form of nationalism emerged from Rousseau’s writing? What is the litmus test for national identity? What then is the goal of nationalism? How has this been achieved?  How do nationalists argue that the nation state is the only viable political unit? Is nationalism always associated with a desire for independence & self determination?
5.       Culturalism
a.    Contrast ‘classical’ nationalism with other forms of nationalism. What is cultural nationalism? Contrast cultural with political nationalism. Who is the architect of cultural nationalism? What is the role of nationalism?
b.    What is the connection between cultural regeneration & nationalism? What other examples of cultural nationalism. What are the possible implications of cultural nationalism?
6.       Liberal nationalism
a.    What is progressive & reactionary nationalism?  Note the influence of Mazzini, Bolivar & Wilson. What circumstances in Europe helped fuse lib & Nat ideas together? How does Lib Nat view the nation?
b.    What conclusion do lib nat’s draw on the relationships between nations? What do they believe will come from national self-determination for all? How can Lib Nat also be internationalist? How can Lib Nat be criticised?
7.       Conservative nationalism
a.    Key figures associated with CN?  Under what circumstances does it tend to develop? How does it differ from LN? How is CN maintained? How does it often appear? Why is it seen by some as misguided?
8.       Expansionist nationalism
a.    When did it come about? What distinguished this from its liberal predecessor What consequences does it have for relations between nations? Note the form in which it took in Russia & Germany
b.    What is national chauvinism based on & what does it appeal to most?
9.       Anti colonial/Post colonial nationalism
a.    How did colonialism sow the seeds of its own destruction? How was it attracted to socialism? What did the overthrow of colonial rule imply? Give examples of those that embraced Marxism-Leninism.
b.    What form did the socialism they proclaimed take?  Anti colonialism was a revolt against what? Describe ‘African socialism’ & a ‘Third world voice’. How was the ‘post colonial’ world different? What forms did new colonialism take? What ideas have these new movements looked to?

15 mark questions
1.       Why are the concepts of the nation and the state often confused?
2.       Distinguish between nationalism and racialism or Distinguish between a nation and a race, and explain why the two are commonly confused.
3.       Why have nationalists viewed the nation-state as a political ideal?
4.       On what grounds have nationalists defended the nation-state?
5.       Distinguish between political nationalism and cultural nationalism.
6.       Explain the key features of conservative nationalism/Explain the key features of liberal nationalism

45 mark questions
  1. Is nationalism a progressive or a reactionary political doctrine?
  2.  ‘Nationalism looks to the past, not to the future.’ Discuss
  3. Is nationalism inherently aggressive and destructive? Or Does nationalism inevitably breed rivalry and conflict?
  4.  ‘Nationalism is a recipe for peace and international order.’ Discuss.

5.        ‘To what extent is nationalism a single doctrine?