Liberalism revision

1.    Why is individual freedom so important for liberals?
2.    Define individualism.
3.    According to Mill, on what grounds can the state rightfully constrain an individual’s liberty?
4.    How do such libertarians view actions that are ‘self regarding’? Give examples.
5.    What does such a view imply about the liberty of others? (Rawls)

6.    Describe Issiah Berlin’s ‘Two concepts of liberty.’
7.    Try & explain how this relates to the question of the individual & the state.(not in text)
8.    What was the main theme of the enlightenment?
9.    Define ‘rationalism’. (See box on p.33)
10. How does this relate to individual liberty?
11. How does this relate to progress?

12. What advantage can reason bring in settling disputes?
13. Define ‘Social Justice’.
14. How is this theory used to justify ‘foundational equality’.
15. How is this then used to justify ‘formal equality’.
16. What other (3rd) kind of equality do liberals subscribe to?
17. Specifically what kind do they not subscribe to?
18. What kind of society is based purely on equality of opportunity? How is it justified?

19. How have classical liberals endorsed meritocracy?
20. Can you see any contradiction between their acceptance of inherited wealth & your answer to 22?
21. Note the views of Rawls on economic inequality & a just society
22. Why is Toleration & diversity important to liberals? Find 3 arguments
23. Write down Voltaire’s quote.
24. Define Pluralism.
25. What is moral neutrality?

26. Why do they fear the state & unrestrained power?
27. What do needs to happen to protect our liberty/
28. According to Locke, freedom can only exist when….
29. What was the ‘Social contract’
30. Write down Hobbes famous quote.
31. Find 2 arguments (p.40 2nd paragraph) about social contract theory & the state & authority.
32. Define constitutionalism.

33. Write down Acton’s famous quote.
34. How might constitutionalism ‘tame’ or ‘limit’ government/state/authority?
35. ‘Support for constitutionalism can take two forms.’ Find & explain them – internal & external constraints what are they & how do they work?
36. Why might Liberals fear democracy? Isn’t it a contradiction?
37. Find 3 arguments in favour. (Concentrate on consent/legitimacy etc).
38. What features must exist for democracy to acceptable to liberals (e.g. universal suffrage)?

41) Define Utilitarianism AND it’s implications.
42) What was the economic approach of Classical Liberals (p.51/2)
43) Define social Darwinism & its implications.
44) Identify 4 features of Neo Liberalism.

Modern Liberalism
45) What is different about Modern Liberals, WHY did it arise?
46) Find the key features of Modern Liberalism
47) What is their view on individualism (developmental)
48) How does that differ from Classical & Neo lib’s/
49) Define negative freedom AND it’s implications.
50) Find 3 features of social liberalism
51) What is the modern lib approach to the economy? (p.62/3)
52) Define Keynesianism.

53) Draw a table that compares Modern & classical liberalism.
54) What is the liberal view of Human nature? (p.77).
55) Find a quote for each of the following & put their tradition next to their quote;

E.g. Jeremy Bentham – Utilitarian – “The greatest happiness for the greatest number.” Now you try.Thomas Hobbes; Thomas Jefferson; John Locke; James Madison; John Stuart Mill; John Rawls; Adam Smith.

15 mark type questions

Create a detailed plan for each of the following:
  1. Distinguish between negative & positive freedom, & explain the implications of each for the state.
  2. Outline a liberal defence of toleration & pluralism
  3. What kind of equality do liberals support & why?
  4. On what grounds do liberals support democracy?
  5. Why do modern liberals support reform & welfare?
  6. Why do liberals emphasise the importance of constitutionalism & consent?
  7. Distinguish between liberalism & social liberalism.
  8. Why have liberals criticised the socialist view of equality
  9. On what grounds have liberals feared democracy?
  10. How & why have conservatives & liberals disagreed over authority?
  11. Why do liberals fear concentrations of power?
  12. Define individualism & its importance for liberal ideology.
  13. Why and how have liberals supported the fragmentation of political power?
  14. To what extent do liberals disagree over freedom? (Jan 11)
  15. On what grounds have liberals defended constitutionalism? (June 11)
  16. Distinguish between economic liberalism and social liberalism. (June 11)

45 mark type questions
(REMEMBER: synopticity = breadth of tradition/tensions within/differences)

Make a detailed plan for each in class.
  1. To what extent is liberalism compatible with democracy? Ways it is, ways it isn’t…
  2. ‘Power tends to corrupt & absolute power corrupts absolutely.’ WHY do liberals believe this, & what are its implications? Why do they say this (explain the statement/what Acton meant), ego, implications = justification for state (Hobbes/Locke), constitutional lib…..
  3. Have modern liberals abandoned individualism & embraced collectivism? CL say yes (why) – ML justification (positive freedom etc), why they haven’t
  4. Liberal democracy is a contradiction in terms. Discuss (Not quite the same question as number 1, can you see the difference?)
  5. Why do liberals support toleration & diversity, AND on what grounds would they limit toleration?  (Years later the same question reworded). Why and to what extent have liberals supported toleration & diversity?
  6. ‘Modern liberals support state intervention, but only within limits.’ Discuss.
  7. Liberals support equality, but only a qualified form of equality.’ Discuss. (Years later the same question reworded). To what extent is there tension between liberalism and the principle of equality? Which kinds do all libs, some libs support, which oppose
  8. ‘The similarities between classical liberalism & modern liberalism are greater than the differences.’ Discuss. What core ideas do they share, where do they diverge & why
  9. To what extent does modern liberalism depart from the ideas of classical liberalism? (Slightly different question than number 8, can you see the difference?)
  10. ‘A fear of democracy runs throughout liberalism.’ Discuss. (Jan 11)

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